Four Theories of the State

There are four theories about the origin (and indirectly the justification) of the state.

  1. Supernatural
    ("Divine Right of Kings")
    E.g. Medieval European monarchies, Oriental despotisms.
  2. Consensual
    (evolves from society)
    John Locke, social contract, 'consent of the governed'
  3. Internal conflict
    (class warfare)
    Marxist class struggle
  4. Conquest
    (external conflict)
    conquering race, nomad bandits plundering farmers

Anarchists hold the Conquest Theory.

(Genuine consensual governance is not a State.)